NOTE ON TRANSLITERATION A conventional, simplified but consistent system of transliteration has been used in this book for Arabic and Persian words or proper names. The `ain is represented by and the hamzah by [1: the harrizah is omitted at the beginning of words. The td’ marbfitah appears as [h] except in idafah, when it is [t]. The usual exceptions have been made where authors use a preferred spelling for their names, and for words which are well known to non-specialist readers: thus, Afghanistan but Dashtistan; Bandar Abbas but Shah ‘Abbas. The mainly primary sources used in the study used wildly inaccurate ways of writing Arab or Persian names: for the sake of other researchers it therefore seemed particularly necessary to be precise about the names of the main actors and places. Reference is made in the Introduction to the variations of English language and spelling found in the original documents, and foreign names were obviously the most distorted elements, especially after two or three cycles of copying. Some names still defy absolute certainty about their spelling and these have been left as found .