Papal Bull, Pope Urban VIII

5 Introduction I have purchased a manuscript, dating back to 14 August 1624. It was a Papal Bull, written and sealed by the Pope of Rome, at Rome, in Santa Maria McGwire church, on a papyrus with 65x83 Cm. So, I edited the manuscript. In 1622, the English and Persian forces expelled the Portuguese from Hormuz which they have been occupying for 115 years. The mission of Portuguese commanders together with the priests is Christianization, whether in Hormuz or the Coast of Arabian Gulf. After expelling the Portuguese out of Hormuz, Philip, the king of Portugal had the desire to reoccupy Hormuz; but the financial resources were insufficient for dispatching a military expedition to take Hormuz back. Therefore, he asked for the financial support of the clergymen and the people of Lisbon, so they gave him 200 thousand Cruzados, which was the Portuguese currency at that time. The funds were not enough to establish a fleet for taking Hormuz back. Accordingly, “Pope Urban VIII”, the Pope of Catholic Church issuedAPapal edict in order to raise the necessary funds, estimated to 200 thousand Cruzados to be gathered for one time. I put a translation for the said bull at the beginning of this study, with an appendix containing the fleet details. Also, I tracked its movements and battles until the disaster which they suffered from.

7 Papal Bull by: Pope Urban VIII Dated August 14, 1624

8 Pope Urban VIII Ad futuram rei memoriam. In the past, letters emanated from our predecessor Gregory XV, of happy memory, whose tenor follows: Gregory XV, Pope. Ad futuram rei memoriam. From the top of the watchtower of the Church Militant where we were placed, not on Our Merits but on His Grace, God reveals deep and hidden thoughts, and that He knows what lies in the darkness of our souls to the hidden things, if we fail to move decisively towards the depths of our souls by considering the princes and powers of darkness - against whom the holy Church is assiduously fighting - constantly watch over the ruin of the Catholic religion. And though we have hope and firm faith in the Lord, who protects his bride the holy Church under the shadow of his hands, we nevertheless believe, beyond this assurance, that it is incumbent upon us from the height of the office of apostolic servant, with all our thoughts and care, only through our farsighted ministry, Not only may the sheep of Christ, protected from the traps of the ravenous wolves in undisturbed peace, give abundantly to the Lord their fruits, but may the Word of God be spread throughout the whole earth, and may His name, with the fruitful propagation of religion, be praised and glorified throughout the whole world. We are thus urged by the wishes of Catholic kings seeking

9 ways andmeans to suppress and dissipate the criminal audacity of the enemies of this faith, to bring the infidels themselves back from the darkness of infidelity to the knowledge of the true God, and to set the faithful free from the invasions, plunder and servitude of the infidels. We therefore willingly and rightly embrace that part of our office which relates to a duty so holy and pleasing to God, and we willingly, as far as possible, assist one another, and do, ordain and order the following, in as much as, having given due consideration to the circumstances of the facts, time and place, we have seen in the Lord that it is good and proper. Thus, our dearest son in Christ Philip, King of Portugal and theAlgarve(1), having exposed us once that by the explorations through the East Indies, undertaken for many years by the northern nations seduced by the diabolical deception of the heresies, they have become richer and more powerful by the profit made. Thus, not only have these nations weighed up a gigantic number of ships, occupied or built several forts in these lands with ports of the greatest importance, but they also plan to occupy places and forts acquired by the aforesaid Philip in these same lands. And neither the fleets nor the armies, however large, both in the Indies and in the Kingdom of Portugal, nor the immense expenditure of King Philip’s patrimony ordered for 1- “Algarve”: The region located at the extreme south of Portugal, West of Andalus, that was occupied by the Portuguese during the Spanish occupation of Andalus.

10 this purpose, could defeat these nations. On the contrary, they had the upper hand, especially after the Persians occupied the fort of Hormuz, with the support of these nations: so that if this is not remedied in due course, there will be an absolutely obvious danger that the other places and forts of the said Philip will not even exist anymore. Since, as it was then exposed, the said King Philip, on the occasion of the facts already exposed, has burdened his own patrimony of the Kingdom of Portugal with a very heavy debt for the recovery and conservation of the aforementioned places and forts - by which the usefulness and convenience of both clerics and subjects of the Kingdom of Portugal are protected no less than the salvation and security of the Catholics living in these parts of India - he has burdened the general contributions of the Kingdom, that even the sum of two hundred thousand ecus(1) given to the King for this purpose by our dear sons, the community and citizens of Lisbon, is not enough, and that he is obliged to have recourse to a subsidy from the clergy, the said King Philip has therefore humbly begged us to design, out of our apostolic goodness, to remedy the above as it should be done. Now we have been in no greater hurry since the beginning of our pontificate than not only to preserve all the churches, their leaders and their persons, safe from any exaction, but 1- Ecus: Gold coin of French origin, called “Crown”. First cast in the rein of Louis IX, king of France in 1266. Its value changed over time.

11 also, as far as possible, to provide them with advantages and honors. Considering, however, that these needs affected the clergy and ecclesiastics of the kingdom of Portugal; that the resources of this kingdom could hardly suffice, as stated above, for wars so important that extremely powerful enemies are waging against the name of Christian in many different places; and that it was the duty of our pastoral office to surround with care and solicitude that which is aimed at the defense and propagation of the faith. We therefore consider it worthy and just not only to listen with an attentive ear to the pious and devout supplications of the Catholic Kings, but also to provide for the assiduous efforts, perils and dangers they tirelessly endure for the honor of God and the triumph of the Catholic Church, and to make generously available the goods and income of the Church’s pecuniary resources for the needs of the churches themselves, their children and Christians, for clergy and laity alike, for the defense of salvation and the growth of the Catholic religion. Therefore, yielding to the supplications of King Philip, which he humbly addressed to us on this subject, we impose, decree and order, by our apostolic authority and by the contents of these letters, a subsidy of two hundred thousand ecus, in the currency of the said kingdom, called cruzado(1), to be levied once. It shall be raised by collectors appointed for this purpose by our venerable brother Anthony, Bishop 1- Cruzado: Gold coin, cast in Lisbon among the years (1495-1501).

12 of Biseglia, by the Collector-General of the revenues of the Apostolic Chamber in the said kingdoms of Portugal and the Algarve, and by two persons, appointed as follows by the said King Philip and the clerics of the said kingdom. It will be levied considering the resources of the persons mentioned below, as well as time constraints, provided that the operation does not exceed four years. It will be levied for both offensive and defensive combat: both for the recovery, protection and safeguarding of the fortresses and places - which the kings of Portugal, predecessors of good memory of the aforesaid Philip, added to the Christian republic in these lands of the East Indies, by their courage and zeal, and those which King Philip himself, of no less great hope, intends to add in the future with the help of divine brilliance - and against the infidels, heretics and schematics living in these lands; and for no other use, for which we conscientiously hold the said King Philip and Bishop Anthony and others involved accountable. It shall be levied on the fruits, revenues, productions, rights objections, and emoluments of each and every cathedral,whethermetropolitan, collegiate or otherwise, monasteries, priories, hospitals ,in which de facto hospitality is not practiced, and of all other ecclesiastical benefits, with or without cure, of the seculars and of those of the order of St. Benedict, St. Augustine, and of Cîteaux, of Saint Jerome, and of all others, even those who hold property by privilege or otherwise , whether they are members of the orders of Cassian, Saint Justin, Saint Saviour, Saint George of Alga,

13 Saint John the Evangelist, and other congregations, including Canons Regular(1), the Society of Jesus, and Beggars, with the exception, however, of those who do not enjoy a firm and permanent income. Even if they were canonicates, prebends, portions and lay dignitaries in cathedrals as well as in the main metropolitan seats or colleges of major churches, they were offices, administration, services in cathedrals , even metropolitan or collegiate , of parish(2) churches, or their perpetual chapels of the vicars, perpetual chaplaincies, prestimonies, prestimonial portions, even simple ecclesiastical benefits for services, regular benefits of this type of priory, stewardship, intendant, preceptor, conventual dignitaries, priorate, administrations or offices, even conventual. Even if these were provided by election. Even if there was a soul charge attached to them in some city, diocese or other place in the kingdoms of Portugal and the Algarve. It will be levied on the conventual chapters, the other menses, no less than on the universities receiving ecclesiastical revenues. It will be levied by collectors who must, however, be ecclesiastics, deputized by our venerable brother archbishops 1- Canons Regulars: a group of people who dedicated their lives for service of their doctrine, church and method. The one of them is titled: “Canon”. They are somehow like a frier , but they live in community among people and adhere to the canon laws. 2 - Parishes: Subsidies Fund.

14 and bishops, and our dear sons abbots, prioresses, abbesses, prioresses, chapters, congregations and colleges, convents, tutors,commendatories,andothersecularclerics, regularsofall orders, churches,monasteries, priories, preceptories, provosts, canonates, prebends, dignities, offices, administrations, services, and other secular and regular benefits of this kind, in title, commend, administration or otherwise, in order to obtain unanimity. So that anyone holding or receiving fruits, revenues, productions, rights, obventions, and emoluments for him or in lieu of an annual pension, or in lieu of an annual pension for him on such fruits, revenues, productions, rights, obviations, and emoluments, regardless of their exemption or immunity regime, similar or not by the burdens upon them, whether reserved or assigned, be required to contribute pro rata to the fair value of the churches, monasteries and other benefits upon which such pensions are reserved, constituted and assigned, whatever their status, rank, order or dignity. It will have to be paid in full by our venerable brother cardinals(1) of the Holy Roman Church, who work with us tirelessly for the universal Church, no less than by the Knights of Jerusalem, and the clergymen who have one or even more ecclesiastical benefits whose annual value does not exceed 40 gold ducats(2) of the House, and who reside personally in their or one of their profits, provided that they have not spent a year 1- Cardinal: A rank above that of the Archbishop and below the Pope’s. 2- Ducat: An ancient gold coin, popular in Europe since long times.

15 in certain places and within certain limits, to be determined by the said present Bishop Anthony, the said collector then in office, and the other two persons to be appointed as aforesaid. It will be placed in the hands of someone trustworthy and capable, to be chosen by said Bishop Anthony and said persons, in a truly safe place. It will be required at the request of the said King, under the mandate of Bishop Anthony and the aforementioned persons, solely for the aforementioned use. Exhorting the archbishops, bishops, abbots, prioresses, and other ecclesiastics of both sexes, both secular and regular, and making a strict injunction to them. We commend them to embrace with eagerness, moved by the inclination of Christian charity, this necessary work, and to carry it out whole heartedly. We do indeed decree that the said subsidy, thus taxed as said, shall be paid, remitted, spent and transmitted; that the archbishops, bishops, abbots, prioresses, all and each of the other persons, chapters, congregations, colleges and universities receiving ecclesiastical fruit throughout Portugal shall be bound and obliged by this contribution pro rata to it, that they shall be constrained and forced by the penalties and censures, both ecclesiastical and financial, left to the discretion of Bishop Anthony, any appeal or other subterfuge of any kind ceasing, that if they attempt to flee by any judge or commissioner and any authority whatsoever, they shall be tried and arrested, all power and authority to judge and

16 interpret having been taken away from any person, that it would be futile and inane to otherwise attempt to do so by any authority, informed or uninformed. Therefore, to our venerable brethren, the Archbishop of Braga and the Bishop of Coimbra, to our dear son the Inquisitor General against the depravity of heretics in the said kingdom, delegated by apostolic authority, in so far as they or two or any of them, of his authority or with that of the others, they will solemnly publish these letters and their contents, in the place and time necessary, when and whenever they are requested by the said King Philip or Bishop Anthony and the persons to be appointed, and that they will assist from the refuge of effective authority the decisions contained in these letters, we commend them to observe firmly, by our authority, these letters and the decisions contained therein, and to cause all concerned to obey and submit to obedience; As for the contradictors, whoever they may be, and the rebels, let them make them obey by the judgments, censures and punishments, both ecclesiastical and financial, imposed, moderated and applied according to their own will, retaining the appeals lodged, appealing even if need be, to the secular arm. Notwithstanding the delay of one day of our predecessor in good memory, Boniface VIII, and that of two days of the General Council, provided that no one is put on trial after three days by virtue of the authority hereof. And notwithstanding the other constitutions and ordinances, of the Pope and of the churches, monasteries, orders and

17 other regular places mentioned above ,even if confirmed by oath, apostolic authorization, or any other confirmation, statutes and customs, establishments, usages, habits and immunities, both thosementioned and others, notwithstanding the exemptions granted by us, privileges, indults, apostolic letters for churches, monasteries, congregations, colleges, universities, orders, and for all the aforementioned superiors and persons, in whatever form and content, with any derogation whatsoever, notwithstanding any other effective and unpublished clauses, notwithstanding suspensive or other decrees entailing contractual force, in general or in particular, at the request of emperors and kings, or otherwise granted, confirmed, approved and renewed that would be contrary to them in any way. We depart from this only on this point, especially and expressly, even if there were a special, specified, expressed and inseparable , but not general clauses of equal importance , mention of these letters or of their content, or if there were other forms sought for this purpose, according to the present content, and even if these letters were inserted word for word, considering the present sufficiently explicit, and the preceding ones retaining their force for the rest. And we declare that sufficient exception must be made, so that no superior immunity or other exemption, however valid the motivation and the remarks, will be favored against the content of the present document. And - it is the same - if there were an insult from the

18 Apostolic(1) Seat for anyone ,in general or in particular, by which he could not be compelled to pay a subsidy of this kind, nor forbidden, suspended or excommunicated without apostolic letters making full and complete mention, word for word, of such an indult and of the persons, places, order and even proper names. And we forbid anyone to support , only in so far as they oppose it , any other privilege, indulgence, general or special apostolic letter, whatever its content ,a favor by means of which, not expressed or fully inserted herein, the effect may be prevented or delayed in any way; letters and contents which should be mentioned in our letters. Secondly, we want, which will be difficult, that these letters be sent to every place where it will be sent. By our apostolic authority we decide that these letters, once transcribed from these presents, undersigned by the hand of a notary public, bearing the seal of the said Bishop Anthony or other person constituted in ecclesiastical dignity, if they were shown in public, should be faith in justice and elsewhere, in everything and for everything, as these presents. Given in Rome, at Santa Maria McGwire, under the seal of the Fisherman, on June 22, 1623, the third year of our pontificate. But it was then explained to us on the part of the said King 1- The Apostolic Seat: The chair of Pope.

19 Philip that the entire clergy of the said kingdom of Portugal was not in the habit of meeting, and that if the said clergy were summoned for the appointment of the bishop or prelate to the effect expressed in the letters inserted above, not only would this delay the effect of the grace granted by our predecessor Gregory, as stated above, to the greatest detriment of the said pious work, but also the expenses involved would entail the heaviest expenditure. This is why, inflected by the supplications humbly made in the name of the said King Philip, we commission the said BishopAnthony, and the collector then in office, by our letters sent in the same brief form last February 10. We commend them to set a period of ten days for our venerable brother theArchbishop of Lisbon and our dear sons the clergy of Lisbon, during which time the Archbishop and the aforementioned clergy shall appoint a bishop or prelate, to the effect expressed in the letters inserted above, in the name of all the clergy of the said kingdom. The time having elapsed, if such an appointment has not been made by the Archbishop and clergy aforesaid, we concede and grant by our apostolic authority, to the same Bishop Anthony and to the Collector then in office, to be able to appoint a bishop or prelate, or another invested with ecclesiastical dignity in any cathedral, doctor of laws or licentiate in a public academy, to do what has been said. We grant them, with respectively the one appointed in either case, and the one appointed by King Philip, to be able to proceed in any way to the execution

20 of the letters inserted above from our predecessor Gregory, their form being otherwise respected. We grant them the right to freely and lawfully do, say, administer, and follow up anything and everything contained in the letters already sent, and anything that is necessary or useful in any way. We grant them to have the same authority in all and for all, as if the bishop or prelate, appointed by the Archbishop and clergy of Lisbon, or by Bishop Anthony and the Collector then in office, as has been said, had been appointed by all the clergy of the said kingdom. As for the rest, it is more fully contained in the second above-mentioned letters, the content of which we have wished to be expressed herein. But, as the saidKing Philip again told us, the said archbishop and clergy had appointed our dear son Michael de Castro, inquisitor in the said kingdom against heretical depravity, deputy of the apostolic authority and archdeacon in the church of Lisbon, master of theology at the University of Coimbra, promoted to carry out what is expressed in the letters inserted above, according to what is said above. As a doubt had arisen as to the validity of his appointment, because the aforementioned archbishop and clergy had not been able to appoint a bishop or prelate to carry out this task according to the contents of our said letters, and the said Bishop Anthony and the collector, after ten days, also appointed the said Michael to the effect expressed in the above letters, and as a certain number held it doubtful that the said Bishop Anthony and the Collector could appoint the

21 said Michael for this task, not Doctor of Laws, but Master of Theology, as has been said. We, desiring to remove from you any matter of doubt concerning the foregoing, also bow to the supplications humbly made before us in the name of the said King Philip. Holding the appointment of the said Michael ,to the effect expressed in the letters inserted above, made both by the Archbishop and the clergy, and by Bishop Anthony and the Collector ,as aforesaid, to be ratified and good ,even though he is not Prelate and Doctor of Laws, we approve, validate and confirm by the authority hereof it and all that follows from it. To this we add the force of the inviolable apostolic permanence. And we make up for any defect, whether mentioned or not, in law or in fact, whatever it may be and however important it may be, in the principal or accessory, in whatever way it may occur. We decree that this appointment is and will be valid, firm and effective, as well as its ensuing vigor, the present letters and their contents; that their full and entire effect is fixed, that they are to be observed by each and every one whom they concern, that they are to be judged and determined eve here not otherwise than by the ordinary judges, delegates and auditors of the causes of the apostolic palace, and that it is against the law and without effect if it should happen to be otherwise, by any authority, informed or not.

22 Notwithstanding our said letters, all that, conceded by them, does not impede, and anything that would be contrary to it. We further wish that these letters, once transcribed from these presents, even in printed form, undersigned by the hand of a notary public, and bearing the seal of a person constituted in ecclesiastical dignity, if they were shown in public, should be considered as authentic in justice and elsewhere, in all things and for all purposes, as these presents. Given in Rome, at Santa Maria McGwire, with the seal of the Fisherman, on August 14, 1624, the second year of our pontificate.

23 The Disaster Of The Portuguese Fleet In the year 1625, considerable reinforcements arrived to “Ruy Freire de Andrade” from “Goa” to Khor Fakkan. Ruy Freire is the name of the commander who arrived from Portugal in 1619, to command the Portuguese Fleet for fighting the English, and under his command the Portuguese fleet was defeated in 1622. Ruy Freire started the operations on the coast of Persia, especially in Khor Ibrahim between Hormuz and Jask, and also in Bander Kong, where Hormuz was blocked by a considerable squadron. However, after that appeared a navy force consisted of four Holland ships and four English ones. The reports of the battle contradicted, both sides suffered from heavy losses, where killed the commander of the Holland squadron. Both sides claimed victory; but practically the result was the defeat of Portuguese. The Portuguese first retired to Khor Fakkan, then to Muscat with many people killed and others wounded(1). And hereunder is the details of what occurred for the Portuguese fleet till their defeat, written in the Spanish account. It is a summary of a Portuguese manuscript in the National Bibliotheque of Lisbon, the translation of which is given here. 1- TheArabs of the Gulf 16-2-1784, B.J.Slot, Leidschendam, the Netherlands, 1995, pp. 107, 131.

24 Nuno Alvares Botelho e a sua armada de alto-bordo (1624-25) Contemporary account, unedited, in theBibliotecaNacional de Lisboa published with notes in Revista de Historia, Oporto, 1928 Coleccao dos MSS da Biblioteca Publica Vol 13-6-17 ff 61-6. NEWS FROM INDIA A summary and faithful account of the vicissitudes of the fleet of the Captain General NunoAlvares Botelho during one year, from 9 December 1624 to 9 December 1625, written by a religious of the Order of St Augustine(1)who was present throughout. 9 December 1625. Captain General Nuno Alvares Botelho left Portugal for India on 25 March 1624 with his ocean-going carracks and six galleons(2) of the state, and after a successful voyage arrived in the same company at the bar of this city of Goa, the metropolis of the Eastern state, and the entire fleet anchored within it on 2 September of the same year. Everyone arrived in such good health, as they had been throughout the voyage, and the fleet’s arrival was so punctual and fortunate that no 1- It says at the end that it was written by one of the captains of the fleet. 2- The carracks were: “Chagas” (flagship), “Quietacao” (Admiral-ship), and the galleons “San Francisco”,” Sao Joao”, “Santo Antonio”, “Santiago”, “Conceicao” and “Sao Pedro”. V. Quintella- Annaes 11 pp .209-10.

25 one in this city can remember anything similar in years past. Many people took such good fortune to indicate that God would grant us many favours against the European enemies who are making themselves masters of trade in these parts, and oppressing this new Christendom. May his Divine Majesty grant that events will come about as we hope from His Infinite Greatness. With these reinforcements the Viceroy, Count Admiral D. Francisco da Gama, at once set about preparing a powerful fleet against the European enemies, who were assembling in the bay of Surat to raise the siege of Ormuz and to help the Persians keep the stronghold that they had taken from us with the help of those same enemies, which Captain Rui Freire was blockading with some ships he was leading in the Strait. Doing all that can be done by way of preparations it is not possible to match the power of the enemy, but trusting that God will aid us with His Infinite Grace, and that the valour of the commander, Nuno Alvares Botelho, and the other captains, and the good spirit of our soldiers, will make up for our smaller forces, he marshalled what he had. Captain General Nuno de Botelho crossed the bar of Goa making for the North on 9 December of the same year, 1624, with six fighting galleons and with the order to wait in the roadstead of Bassein for two more, which were still refitting, and to take on further provisions of which he was short, for they were needed for three or six months. What with waiting for the two galleons and further delays which were caused by

26 the provisioning, the commander left Bassein on 6 January 1625, with eight fighting galleons. These were his flagship and his admiral-ship, in which Francisco Borges de Castel Branco was sailing as admiral, the galleon “Sao Sebastiao” captain Antonio Telles de Meneses; the galleon “Trindade”, captain Francisco de Sousa de Castro; the galleon “Sao Salvador”, captain Francisco de Tovar da Cunha; the galleon” Santiago”, captain Simao de Quintal de Carvalho; the galleon “Misericordia”, captain Francisco de Costa de Lemos; the galleon” Santo Antonio”, captain Antonio Godinho Coelho. Having ascertained that there was no enemy carrack in Surat and that twelve of the European enemies had left for the strait of Ormuz, he sailed with all speed towards Muscat, in accordance with his instructions. They encountered may contrary winds, so strong that they were comparable to those of the coast of Natal, which broke the topmast and yard of the flagship, and finally Split the mainmast. Because they were late and he was afraid of missing the enemy, the commander was unwilling to stop to make repairs or to take on water, although there was a great shortage of it throughout the fleet and it had been rationed for many days. So, without anchoring or stopping anywhere, but going within hailing distance of Muscat, he made for Ormuz, sighting that island and twelve enemy ships at Gombroon(1) 1- “Zuijt-Holland”, “Nieuw-Bantam”, “Dordrecht” and “Weesp” (Dutch) with “James”, “Jonas”, “Eagle”, and “Star” (English carracks) and “spy” and “scout” (English patachos or frigates). The other two belonged to the Moors of Surat.

27 on 10 February. He decided that he could reach and attack them that same day, and he went towards them, but it grew dark, the wind decreased, and the tide fell, so he anchored very close to them and spent the night in preparation. In the dawn watch the whole fleet hoisted sail, and when day broke, he saw the twelve enemy ships approaching him with great determination (and, as was learnt later, great encouragement from Persians) imagining that they would soon have vanquished our ships. Giving the signal for the whole fleet to engage, our Commander attacked the enemy, and saluted the Dutch flagship(1) , which was in the van, by firing a blank volley, but she returned the salute with a cannonball. The battle began with all imaginable fury, the wind being slight and in favor of the enemy, and as a result our ships were unable to go alongside. The Dutch flagship and admiralship(2) engaged our commander’s flagship closely and made it their principal target. The battle raged undecided from before sunrise to after sunset. The enemy flagship, with her yards down, badly damaged and listing, was towed away from the fighting by barges, and on the admiral-ship the banner was furled, which some thought was a sign that her captain had been killed(3). The galleon “Sao Sebastiao” fought well among the enemy, as did the “Santiago”, while the admiral-ship went 1- The “Zuidt-Holland”. 2- The “Nieuw-Bantam”. 3- It was not the Dutch admiral who was dead but the Commander himself, Adolf Becker, in his flagship.

28 alongside a carrack(1) and captured a flag from it. All the other captains behaved valiantly that day throughout the fighting, and certainly if the wind had allowed boarding, the enemy would have been completely routed. When the battle began again in the morning Rui Freire, the Commander of the Strait, appeared with three ships from the direction of Ormuz, and with them he attacked three enemy patachos who were approaching from that side which fired several shots at him with their cannon before joining the body of their fleet. Rui Freire went within hailing distance of Commander Nuno Alvares Botelho, and because of the calms threw him a cable so that he could take him alongside some enemy carrack. This was done by Rui Freire with great valour and speed, but the desired result could not be attained because the enemy was moving away and in the end decided to take to flight, making full sail towards Gombroon. This is now a fortress belonging to Persia, situated on the edge of the mainland opposite Ormuz. Commander Nuno Alvares Botelho followed them, firing his guns, until it was dark, when he anchored close to the enemy, who had retreated to the fortress. In the battle he had lost four men killed and twenty wounded, including one Dom Fernando (illegible) from a cannonball which struck his leg when he was on the gangway above the boarding net, close to the commander, who was also hit in a leg bay a splinter. In spite of this he carried 1- This was the Dutch carrack “Dordrecht”. V. Dagh-Register gehoudem in’t Casteel Batavia Anno 1624-9. The Hague, 1896, p. 158.

29 out the duties of his rank by going round the fleet almadia that night, to find out what damage had been done and give appropriate orders. He found that Antonio Telles(1), captain of the galleon “Sao Sebastiao” which had been pre-eminent in the fighting(2), had been badly wounded in an arm, as had D. Francisco Manuel in the chest. He accordingly ordered that Simao de Quintal de Carvalho to command the galleon “Sao Sebastiao” and Martim Quaresma Carneiro should command the galleon “Santiago”, in which he was sailing; and that everyone should prepare for the next day, and weapons, sails, and rigging made ready in all the galleons. In general, there were many dead and wounded in this battle. Among the officers were the master of the admiralship, the pilot of the “Misericordia” and the master-gunner of the “Sancto Antonio”. As for the consternation of the Persians who were watching from the fortresses of Ormuz and Gobroon and the shore, they had their fingers in their mouths, (as is their habit when afraid), and it was later learnt that it had seemed to them that they saw hell opened; and in truth the battle was one of the most outstanding engagements that have ever been anywhere. The next day, which was Ash Wednesday, dawned with a strong wind and such high seas that neither our fleet nor that 1- Antonio Telles de Meneses, who was later Commander of the ocean-going fleet in India and fought Dutch fleets which were blockading the Goa bar in 1636-49. 2- A contemporary English account says, “This ship did more spoil unto our fleet than any three of their ships taken together”. The “Sao Sebastiao” had been built in Daman.

30 of the enemy could hope to fight that day. The mainmast of the galleon “Sao Sebastiao” had been struck several times by cannon-balls and had lost its shrouds as well as having already suffered on the voyage, and in the heavy seas it fell, taking the mizzen with it. This was a loss that greatly encouraged the enemy to come out after our fleet(1), because they knew from experience that this galleon was the second strongest after the flagship. The next day afterAshWednesday, although our fleet was without this galleon, the best one on it, which could not take part because it had neither main mast nor sails, the Commander Nuno Alvares Botelho, set off towards the enemy. They were already approaching to attack us, having made repairs with the resources of the friendly Persian fortresses, and so the second battle began as soon as the sun came up, and it lasted until night fell, without ceasing or abating all day. Almost at the start they killed the admiral Francisco Borges and Francisco Tovar da Cunha, captain of the galleon “Sao Salvador”. Because the enemy saw that only the flagship was effective, they tried to destroy it, thinking that by doing so they would have the victory. All that day it was attacked by seven vessels, and sustained much damage to the masts and rigging, but they were no less harassed for they were hit as often as the galleon, and over one thousand five hundred missiles were fired that day on the Commander’s 1- The English account already quoted says: “To our comfort and their sorrow, we saw their veare-admirall rowll by the board her maintopmast, with part of her mainemast and also her foretopmast”.

31 ship, and at nightfall the enemy broke off, weary with fighting. As they withdrew to the fortress of Gombroon the sighted the galleon “Trindade”, drifting off course because of damage to the steering, and carried by the current in that direction. They turned about and set upon her severely, the captain, Francisco de Sousa de Castro, putting up a spirited defense until help came, as I can testify as an eye-witness, having seen it all. Our Commander went about to come to the rescue, and I do not know how the flagship was able to turn without sails, because she had only a fragment of foresail and no sheets. Nevertheless, he came to our aid, and used his artillery to get her away from the enemy. Then he moved away to pursue them, firing at them until they retreated, or rather fled. As on the first day, the wind fell when it was already dark, and our fleet anchored perilously close to the spit of Ormuz, because we had no choice. On that day twenty men were killed on the flagship, including the chief pilot, and thirty-seven were wounded, including the master, the boatswain and the master-gunner, and the Commander had also been struck by splinters several times, from which God delivered him with singular mercy; for he was always where the shots were flying, going to help everywhere with rare coolness, strength, and valour. There were also many dead and wounded in all the galleons. If the “Sao Sebastiao” had had masts so that it could have taken part, the enemy would not have left the shelter of Gombroon or they would have suffered much worse than

32 they did the first day. Even so, they lost one of their carracks, which was used as a fire-ship(1), and were badly damaged, and suffered the ignominy of flight. In this engagement, Commander Rui Freire twice sent men to the flagship of Nuno Alvares Botelho to replace those who were dead and wounded, and it is noteworthy that in the midst of the fighting Commander Nuno Alvares Botelho was concerned to ask personally how the captains of his fleet were doing, talking to them from the top of the boarding net. When he learnt that the admiral had been killed he entrusted the ship to Antonio da Cruz, and because of the death of Francisco de Tovar he put Manuel Dinis in charge of the “Sao Salvador”. The two Commanders judged that the fleet was at risk, being anchored so close to the spit of Ormuz, and agreed that using the land breeze we should move to Larak to make necessary repairs and take on provisions, and this was done under sail a little before daybreak with lanterns to entice the enemy. When it was daylight the enemy also hoisted sail but did not approach, although our fleet was moving under torn foresails only, while they had more sail. Going towards the shore and tacking in order to go slowly, we dropped anchor off Larak, firing our cannon to draw them closer. But they would not engage and made for Gombroon as usual. That day Nuno Alvares sent D.Francisco Coutinho to be captain of the admiral-ship because he had volunteered for 1 - The “John”. This ship was a Portuguese one from Goa, of 250 tons, which had been captured by the English on the journey from Chaul on 11 November 1624.

33 the post, and appointed Antonio Telles to be admiral of the fleet as soon as he had recovered. As for the reaction of the Persians, I shall only say that if the first time they were awestruck, this second time they were far more intimidated because of the fierceness with which both sides fought, and the missiles and fire they saw coming from the flagship and proportionately from all the other galleons in company with it(1). As for the condition of the fleet, many things could not be done because none of the masts were sound and there were no spars with which to repair them, nor sails or rigging, and there was a severe shortage of officers. A council was held, with the Commander of the Strait Ruy Freire de Andrade and all the captains of high-sided ships and of oared ships. In view of all the difficulties and the possibility of bad weather in which the whole fleet might be wrecked on the island, as four oared ships had been lost a few days before, it was agreed that the fleet should go to Muscat, where there was timber and cordage to make repairs. But the Commanders Nuno Alvares and Rui Freire decided between themselves that they would stay there three or four days longer, and they would try and find a spy to discover the enemy’s intentions. They would go to Khor Fakkan, a bay on the coast of Arabia, 1 - English accounts say that the English and Dutch allies fired 11,000 cannon-balls, and seven or eight of their cannon fractured. They also say that about 20,000 balls were fired in the three fleets. Another account says that on the first day alone 16,000 were fired and on the second 17,000!.

34 to take on water, of which they were in dire need, and then consider again and discuss what would be best to do next. D. Francisco Coutinho agreed with this, but although every effort was made to find a spy, it proved impossible because the enemy was very alert. When the four days had passed the shortages were so pressing that the decision to take the fleet to Khor Fakkan had to be carried out. But Nuno Alvares was so reluctant to leave the place that he remained there another ten days, harassing the enemy and continually firing at them. On 23rd February, the eve of St Mathew, the enemy set sail with fourteen ships, eleven of theirs and three Moorish ones. Nuno Alvares gave the signal for the fleet to weigh anchor and went out to meet them, trying to cut across their course so that they could not leave without fighting. They put off doing so that morning and afternoon, and by nightfall the weather had so deteriorated that all vessels of both fleets were in danger of going around simultaneously on the Persian coast. The weather improved when the day broke, our Commander assembled his fleet and the enemy his, and at midday both set off. The enemy tried to pass to windward under the prow of our flagship to follow their course, while the Commander maneuvered to bar the way, bringing the ship to in front, and sailing as close to the wind as he could. Because the galleon “Trindade” was badly damaged and the “San Salvador”, with his brother-in-law D. Sebastiao Lobo, and all others were in a bad state, his aim this time was to have the fleet in formation, rallying them all together. In view of the lack of officers, he

35 took particular care to execute this, for the success of the engagement depended on keeping order, as events showed later. The fighting began on both sides at one in the afternoon, the flagship bearing the brunt of the attack, which lasted until midnight, when the enemy fled, putting out their lights. They lost the wind and came astern of the flagship, from which they all received much damage. Two hours before sunset the English flagship(1) broke away badly damaged, breaking her flags as flagship in our sight, and did not come back to fight. It was thought that this signal meant that the commander had been killed, which would be a good thing if true, because it was, he who took part in the capture of Ormuz(2). In this third and last encounter with the enemy our fleet sustained no significant damage; only two men were killed, and eight burned, in D. Sebastiao Lobo’s galleon, two in the “Sao Sebastiao” and nine in the flagship, including the Captain, and Jeronimo Botelho, the Commander’s nephew, and Bras Correa, the Captain of an oared vessel. Although these losses in themselves were considerable because we were few, they were not so great considering the length of the battle and what might have been expected in such fierce fighting. The three of the flagships (which is mentioned because of her greater importance) were all killed by a single 1- The “James”, 900 tons, with 48 cannon. 2 -This was Captain JamesWeddell. He was not killed in this battle, since he later commanded an English fleet which visited Goa and Macao in 1637, and on the return voyage in 1638 he took artillery from Macao to the fortresses of Cochin and Goa.

36 ball on the deck which fell at the Commander’s feet, and they were so broken that pieces of their flesh struck his face. In addition, twenty men were wounded on the flagship (which bore the brunt of the attack), and the Commander hit in the shoulder and thumb. The oared vessels could not take part or be of assistance in this engagement because of the gale but ran into danger through trying to follow the high-sided ships; but the soldiers that Rui Freire had left on the flagship and other galleons were very effective. This in brief is what happened in the three battles fought between these two fleets almost as though they had been in an arena, so that it is thought here in the East that there has never been anything like it in the seas. It is not my intention to give individual praise to those who were involved in the fighting but to recount what I saw with my own eyes of the encounters of our fleet with those of England and Holland. Nevertheless, I must comment that it was wonderful to see the two Commanders, Nuno Alvares Botelho and Rui Freire de Andrade, the first time they had met, talking together in the middle of the first battle as though they were in some garden. As soon as the enemy saw them conferring together, they aimed everything at them for as long as they continued talking, one on board the flagship and other from his rowboat, for a long time, until everything was settled between them. When a Kinsman of NunoAlvares tried to persuade him to move because the balls were raining down on them, he was so impatient with him that he pushed him away as though he were an unfriendly stranger. God. who

37 favours the resolute, guarded them with His protection from a danger which only Heaven could avert. As soon as the first encounters were over the two Commanders discussed sending news to the viceroy about what happened and what losses had been incurred, and this they did, reporting clearly and truthfully all that had happened. After the third battle General Nuno Alvares sailed to Khor Fakkan with his victorious fleet, from which the two enemy had fled. After ten days he made landfall in the bay of Khor Fakkan, which is on the coast of Arabia, and from there he sent word to viceroy, on his own account, of what else had happened, and the great hunger and thirst that had been suffered, and the losses sustained in the fighting. He could not communicate this message to the Commander Rui Freire because the distance between them was too great to bridge, and so it was only from Nuno Alvares. He asked for permission to continue the war as it seemed to him necessary for the good of the state and waited for it to come. It must be observed (to conclude the account of these three battles) that this was the first time that Dutch and English enemies had joined forces against us (1), which amounted to twelve very large carracks, with two flagships and two admiral-ships, each of which caried fifty-six cannon, and the 1- This is incorrect. The Dutch and English had combined in 1622 in a ‘Defensive fleet’ (‘offensive’ would be more exact). The viceroy Francisco da Gama, conde de Vidigueira, had been defeated bear Mozambique in June 1622 by an Anglo-Dutch squadron. 16 English accounts say that the allied squadron had 281 cannon and the Portuguese fleet 232.

38 three smallest ones, which were used as patachos, had twenty cannons. This is the number carried by most of our galleons2, who were short of bombardiers or seamen who could act as such. The enemy were very strong, fighting between spits of land, with the help and support of three Persian fortresses to which they could withdraw between engagements, and which incited them against us, and provided them with everything they needed. Our fleet had nothing for repairs and refreshment, all the outstanding fighters were lost in the first battle, and when the men were exhausted by fighting all day, they had to spend the night mending sails and rigging and putting splints on the masts. In spite of all this work they fought bravely, provoking, and obliging the enemy to do the same, driving them to flight and then pursuing them, ruining their self-respect and the reputation they had won throughout the East, killing many of them and wrecking their ships, all of which gave our men experience and improve their morale. As a result, to add to the success of our fleet, the enemy did not attack Muscat, as had certainly been their intention as soon as they had picked up the silk at Gombroon and raised the blockade of Ormuz. Furthermore, they did not split up to pillage, and they lost the monsoon they needed to fulfil their obligations, which must have caused loss and damage to their interests, which would surely have been enhanced if our fleet had not put them in disarray. What more could be done to sustain the effect of our fleet? If it could re-form and make repairs with the same speed with

39 which the enemy does, they can be completely defeated. We could chase them so that they lose the advantages that they go to find in these ports and those they achieve by taking prizes, and we could better ensure that they could not join together to lay siege to our fortresses or try to prevent our carracks going to Portugal, as has happened in the past. Although it was not possible to put right the damage, we had suffered so that we could pursue the enemy as would have been best, nevertheless we were for the time safe from other harm that could have been done to our fortresses, so they were secure for the time being and safe from any surprises that might be feared. Our reputation had recovered from the depths to which it had fallen because of the freedom with which our enemies cruised and made captures and contracts and took on provisions in safety whether they were many of few. Now the Moors realize that henceforward this will not be so, if this fleet is maintained as it should be, and that if it is so powerful in these seas, enemies sailing in them must be in larger companies, and cost more, and take fewer prizes (1), and that our merchants can sail without hindrance and be more profitable to His Majesty’s customs and more beneficial to his vassals. All these are points I should make to bring everyone in agreement about the maintenance and preservation if this fleet, each one as befits and concerns him. After all that has been described had taken place, a 1- This is true. See on this point: FOSTER, English Factories in India, 1624-29, p.v.sqq. For Contemporary English accounts of these three battles v.FOSTER, op.cit., and for the Dutch version v.Dagh-register, cit.

40 council was held in Khor Fakkan about what should be done with the fleet in the state in which it was after three battles, and it was generally agreed that it should sail to Muscat and there await orders from the Viceroy; and that because of the shortage of men, the lack of money and munitions and equipment, all this should be waited for before attacking Ormuz. The Commander Nuno Alvares had already done what he had come to the Strait to do, which was to fight the enemy fleets and drive them out of it, but because of the lack of war materials he could not try to return towards Ormuz without dealing with this lack and giving his men rest and refreshment. So, he agreed with the general opinion to take the fleet to Muscat with the intention of preparing as quickly and as well as possible to return to attack Ormuz to carry out whatever the Viceroy ordered. Or to fight the enemies, if they came back after re-forming, although it was more likely that they would not do so because of the bad condition in which they had gone away, or rather had fled from the Strait. So, Commander Nunes Alvares Botelho with all his fleet left the bay of Khor Fakkan for the fortress of Muscat to await reinforcements from India, and meanwhile to make repairs to whatever was necessary as well as could be done. When they reached Muscat, a council was held to consider what to do. The Commander Rui Freire and the Captain of the fortress, Martim Afonso de Melo, the Chief Treasury Officer and the other captains present agreed that it would be best if Nuno Alvares Botelho were to go to Goa with his fleet to re – fit,