Turgut A Four-Act Play

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Dr. Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi Turgut A Four-Act Play Al-Qasimi Publications, 2021

Turgut Reis A Four-Act Play First published in 2004 in Arabic as “Turghut” by : Al-Qasimi Publications Author: Dr. Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi (United Arab Emirates) Publisher Name: Al-Qasimi Publications Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Edition: First Year of publication: 2021 © All rights reserved: Al-Qasimi publications Sharjah, United Arab Emirates ------------------------------------------ Translated from the Arabic by: Dr. Ahmed Ali ------------------------------- ISBN: 978-9948-469-53-7 Printing Permission: National Media Council, Abu Dhabi, UAE No. MC 01-03-7435544, Date: 05-08-2021 Printing: AL Bony Press- Sharjah, UAE Age Classification: E The age group that matches the content of the books was classified according to the age classification issued by the National Council for Media ---------------------------------------------- Al- Qasimi Publications, Al Tarfa, Sheikh Mohammed Bin Zayed Road PO Box 64009 Sharjah, United Arab Emirates Tel: 0097165090000, Fax: 0097165520070 Email: info@aqp.ae

Tu r g u t 5 CONTENTS Foreword 7 Cast of Characters 9 Act One, Turgut in Captivity 13 Scene I 15 Scene II 20 Act Two, Turgut out of Captivity 29 Scene I 31 Scene II 36 Scene III 39 Act Three, The Djerba Trick 43 Scene I 45 Scene II 49 Scene III 54 Act Four, The Battle of Djerba 59 Scene I 61 Scene II 65 Scene III 69 Scene IV 71 References 73 Images 75

Tu r g u t 7 Foreword In 916 AH (corresponding to 1510 CE) The Spaniardsmanaged to take overmost ofNorthAfrica in lieu of the weakness of Emir Muhammad ibn Hussain of Tunisia, the 19th Emir of the Hafsid dynasty. The take-over was met was almost no resistence as the locals had barely any peoper knowledge of bearing or fighting with arms. As a result, this Arab area remained under Spanish control for 42 years. As fate would have it, an Ottoman who had dedicated his life to the service of Islam and his fellow Muslims, managed through his courage and dedication to free this region from the Spanish occupation. This is Turgut Reis (Dragut) and here is his story. The Author

Tu r g u t 9 Cast of Characters According to appearance • Port Director • A Companion • Ship Owner • Turgut • Voices • A group of Turkish Sailors • A Sailor • A Turkish Commander • A Turkish Soldier • A Group of Turkish Sodiers • Turkish Commander (2) • Turkish Commander (3)

Tu r g u t 10 • Corsican Chief • A Group of Corsican Soldiers • Giannettino Doria (Commander of the Spanish fleet) • A Group of Local Corsicans • A Group of Spanish Commanders • Supervisor of Genoa Port • Genoa Locals • Admiral Barbarossa • Barbarossa’s Guards • Genoa Council of Notables • Notables Councillor (2) • Notables Councillor (3) • Admiral Andrea Doria • Turkish Commanders • Commander (1) • Commander (2) • Commander (3) • Spanish Commanders • Commander • Accompanying Soldier • Maltese Commander

Tu r g u t 11 • Sheikh of Djerba • The Messenger • Holy League Members: • Commander General: Prince Don Juan de la Cerda • Giannandrea Doria, Commander of the naval forces • Don Álvaro (Commander of the Infantry) • The Hajib • Representative of Malta • Commander of the Forces of Sicily • Grand Master of the Order of Malta • Jean de la Valette • A Soldier • Soldier (2) • Soldier (3) • Commander Piala Pasha • Voices • Commentator’s voice

13 Act One Turgut in Captivity

Island of Djerba

Tu r g u t 15 Scene I Place: The fortified port of Girolata on the cost of the Island of Corsica. Time: 1540 CE Setting: The Corsican Port Director inspects the platforms with a companion. Before the Director’s office are long wooden benches. Port Director (to the owner of a ship docked at the port): Good afternoon. Ship Owner: Good afternoon. The Companion: Who is he?

Tu r g u t 16 Port Director: He is the owner of this ship. He arrived this morning. Companion (to Port Director): Look! There are big ships entering the port. Port Director (Staring at the arriving ships, cries loudly): These are many ship! Oh, my God! It is Turgut! Turgut .. Turgut. Ship Owner (jumps off his ship, sits on the platform, stares in shock at the arriving ships, then looks at the port director, and screams): He’s coming! Turgut is coming! Oh, oh! We’re doomed! We’re finished! O, God! He’s coming. Save yourselves! I saw the cannons with my own eyes shooting balls of lava. There, I also saw a ship swallowed by the string waves of the Mediterranean. The red flames consumed it and it drowned. O, my God! He’s coming! Save yourselves! If you cannot, may God help you. Ah! Turgut. No one escapes his grasp! No one can oppose him. Port Director (trying to calm the ship owner down): Take it easy. Calm down. Turgut is not going to hurt you. Ship Owner: What is he doing here? Whey did he come? Why?

Tu r g u t 17 Port Director: He usually comes to our Island (Corsica) and stays at the port of Girolata after he has chased away the pirates and pursued European ships. He comes to rest and when times allows it, he purchases provisions for his fleet from this small port which is well-protected from both sides. We, the inhabitants of the port area, are Christians and dealth with Turgut before. He never did us any harm. (Then after a moment of silence) Port Director: Turgut is here. Let’s go meet him! A Turk walks in steadily. He is, tall, well-built with broad shoulders dressed in Turkish attire. Port Director: Praise the Lord for your safe arrival! Turgut: Thank you. May Allah be praised. Port Dirctor (asking Turgut to have a seat): Please, have a seat. Turgut sits and around him are the Port Dirctor, Port Dirctor’s companion and the ship owner. Ship Owner (addressing Turgut): It is said you are a pirate; but you do not look like one. You

Tu r g u t 18 look more like a military Commander. Why do they call you a pirate? Turgut: I was born in Saravalos, Turkey, in 1485. We are in 1540 now. So, I am now in my 56th year. My village overlooked the sea, and since my early childhood, I have been infatuated by the sea. When I was about 7 or 8, I learnt shooting, wrestling and fencing with the sword. I used to rush to the sea every time I saw a ship coming or passing. I would then jump into the water as if trying to catch up with it or hug it. It was later that I joined one of the pirate ships where I learned the naval arts. Afterwards, I bought a ship which I used to chase our enemies. As it was getting dark, Turgut execuses himself. Turgut (to the port director): Please do not forget to supply us with water, vegetables and fruit very early in the morning. We will be sailing away at the early hours. They all leave the stage, each from the direction they had come in from. -Blackout-

Tu r g u t 19 Giannettino Doria

Tu r g u t 20 Scene II Setting: Port of Girallato. Dawn after the night Turgut spent at the port. Silence all around except for some small waves hitting against the ships and dock. Turgut stands on a bench on the platform. He looks around at his fleet. He has decided to leave the port at sunrise. His saliros prepare to leave. They clean their arms, their ships, prepare their breakfast. Turgut notices suspicious movements. Some faint noises, voices and sounds of waves are heard, Turgut (calling his men): Hurry up! Hurry up! Our prey has come to us with no effort from our side.

Tu r g u t 21 A Sailor (Looking at what Turgut has seen): A large enemy ship! Turgut (in a commanding voice): Time is running out. If they see us, they will escape. So, let me take them by surprise. No time to pull up the anchors. Leave them as is and let’s advance. Come on, hurry! Turgut leaves the stage. All are rushed here and there. The Turkish sailors start sailing. A Sailor (Looking at the enemy ship) “He addresses a fellow sailor”: Look, Look! This ship is not just one. There are many ships. They can see us head on. They are not running away. The Other sailor: They are coming towards us, crossing the port strait, Turgut’s voice from a distance: Gather all our fleet round the commanding ship. I will make my way through this powerful fleet. Commrades! Advance! Advance! One of Turgut’s officers (heading towards the Commanding ship): Look behimd that large ship. They are ten ships! Ten ships!

Tu r g u t 22 Immidate intensive exchange of fires from both sides. Loud sounds of shelling and bombardment. War cries. Shouts of Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar! Allahu Akbar! Intense fighting between the two parties. A Turkish officer with a group of soldiers leave the stage, looking towards the battle area. Officer: The Commanding ship where Turgut is has been stuck between two large ships. A Turkish soldier: We are under heavy fires from the ramparts. An officer (looking at the battlefield): The Commanding ship with Turgut is on fire. It is sinking! Turgut is on board! Let’s head for land! Hurry! The group leaves from the left of the stage. Loud voices and humming are heard coming from their side: Voices: (humming) The group returns to the stage.

Tu r g u t 23 A group member: These are Corsicans! They have come in thousands carrying their arms and axes. The Corsicans enter the stage. The Turkish group retreats. When they get to the other side of the stage, they hear more humming and voices. They go back again. A Turk (in panic): They have disembarked. I ca see them raising their arms against us. Voices: (Humming) The Corsicans from the ramparts enter the stage. The Turks are now seiged from all sides by thousands of Corsicans. The Corsican Chief (to a group of Turks): Drop your weapons! The Turkish groupd put their arms down and surrender. The Corsican Chief (to his men): Tie them with the ropes. The Corsican men tie the Turks up. The Corsican Chief: Now, cut off their ears and noses.

Tu r g u t 24 Quarelling and shouting ensue. CaptainGiannettino Doria arrives. He is a beardless youngman under twenty years of age. Giannettino Doria: Stop this nonsense! The Corsican Chief (coming forward): And who are you? Giannettino Doria: I am the Commander of the Spanish fleet. The Corsican Chief: The Commander of the Spanish fleet is Andrea Doria. Giannettino Doria: Andrea Doria is my uncle. And who are you? The Corsican Chief: I am the Chief of the Corsicans. But where is Andrea Doria? Giannettino Doria: Well, as Turgut was roaming the Mediterranean, seizing, capturing the best of the Christian ships and destroying their power wherever he went, this angered the Christian nations and after careful consideration, they decided to capture and get rid of him. In the meantime, I asked my uncle, Andrea Doria, who is

Tu r g u t 25 now the Chief of the Council of Notables in Genoa, to make me the commander of the force commissioned to capture Turgut. He approved and gave me ten ship to be under my command. And I selected ten of the most experienced ship captains to be with me. Voices … soldiers making way. Turgut enters with handcuffs, eyes almost closed. He is taken to the front of the stage. Many Corsican locals together with the Spanish chiefs rush to look at Turgut. Turgut (addressing the audience): Ah! What could I have done? This has been destined! At least! my capor is a renowned Navy Commander. Turgut turns round. He inspects everyone of the stage, but fails to see the person he seems to be looking for. Turgut: Where’s Andrea Doria? Where is that old man with his grey hair? Giannettino Doria (comes forward and responds): I am Commander Giannettino

Tu r g u t 26 Doria. Andrea Doria is my uncle. He did not come with us. Turgut (stares in disbelief and shock at Giannettino Doria. Then he bursts in fury and shouts): What? I am a captive to a beardless child?! What a disaster! What a shame! Turgut’s humiliating remarks and looks anger Andrea Doria who piles obscenties at Turgut. He advances towards Turgut, fuming, and raises his hand to slap Turgut. Before he could lay his hand on Turgut, Turgut is furious and he spits on Giannettino Doria while he shouts: It does not befit a real man to humiliate a captive especially with his hands cuffed. It is an act of shame to attack a man after you’ve captured him. This spit is for such cowardly behavior that is fit only for the low and debased. Giannettino Doria pulls his sword out in fury and attacks Turgut. Turgut kicks Giannettino Doria with all his strength in his stomach and causes him to fly away and fall on his back unconscious. The Spanish chiefs and officers present attack Turgut.

Tu r g u t 27 He resists with his head, chest and kicks them with his feet until his clothes are torn, his turban falls and hie is utterly exhausted. They manage to overpower him and put him in handcuffs and shackles. Giannettino Doria (back to consciousness): Take him down to the orlop deck. Tie him up with the heavy chains down there. The Spanish soldiers grag Turgut with the chains and take him to the lower deck. Giannettino Doria stands up and fixes his clothes. Giannettino Doria (to his soldiers): Come on. Hurry up. Prepare to sail to Genoa.

Tu r g u t 28 Hayereddin Barbarossa

29 Act Two Turgut out of Captivity

Tu r g u t 31 Scene I Place: Genoa Time: 1543 CE Setting: Genoa Port Supervisor looking at the sea through a monocular. He addresses the locals of Genoa: O. Genoa people! Many military ships have entered the port. They are raising the Ottoman flag. They belong to the awesome Ottoman navy that everyone is talking about. The locals gather and panic and fear show on their faces that the Ottoman fleet may destroy their city and burn it down.

Tu r g u t 32 A noise is heard followed by sounds of footsteps approaching. Admiral Barbarossa arrives with a group of his guards. The port supervisor approaches Admiral Barbarossa saying: I am the Port Supervisor … How can I help you? Barbarossa: I am the Ottoman Admiral Hayereddin Barbarossa. (Looking right and left, he asks): Where are the town offcials? Port Supervisor: When the members of the Council of Notables saw your arrival, they left immediately for a meeting. They will shortly be here. A brief moment later, the Port Supervisor turns to the direction of the sounds of some footsteps heard approaching. A group of men appears, with one of them holding a white banner. Port Supervisor: Here you are. They have arrived. A member of the Notables Counil approaches Barbarossa and addresses him: We have met and decided to respond to all your requirements providing that you spare our city any form of destruction.

Tu r g u t 33 Another Council Member advances to address Barbarossa: We request a pledge of safety from you. All you want is yours; just spare our city and steer your cannons away from us. A third Council Member (in a subdued tone): We are prepared to fill up our ships with money and all riches you require and hand it all to you. Just let us be. Barbarossa ignores all their offers. He closes his eyes and clinches his fist, then says: I demand much more than all you are opffering; more than your coofers could hold; much more than all your wealth. And I will not leave until I get it. Otherwise, your town with your churches and homes will be destroyed over your heads. My soldiers, as you can see, are all waiting for my signal to ‘strike’. Fright and panic show clearly on the Notables Council. A Councilor (asks hesitatingly): What is it that you require that pleases you, Admiral Barbarossa?

Tu r g u t 34 Admiral Barbarossa (sternly): I demand the release of Turgut. Hand him over to me and, no harm will come upon you. Noises and exchanges among the Council members as they are in consultation with one another. A Councilor (to Barbarossa): Turgut’s issue is with the Chief of the Council. Come with us to the palace to discuss Turgut’s release there. Admiral Barbarossa: That’s fine. Let’s go. The members of the Notables Council exit followed by Admiral Barbarossa and his guards. -Blackout-

Tu r g u t 35 Andrea Doria

Tu r g u t 36 Scene II Scene: Genoa, Council of Notables’ Palace. Admiral Andrea Doria with his long grey beard appears waiting for the arrival of Admiral Barbarossa. A Genoa Councilor (to Admiral Andrea Doria): We must agree to his demands. He has come with a fleet of 210 ships. Admiral Barbarossa enters. Admiral Barbarossa (stops as he walks in, inspects Admiral Andrea Doria, then in a surprised tone he says): Who? Admiral Andrea Doria?!

Tu r g u t 37 Admiral Andrea Doria (smiles and approaches Barbarossa and in a similar surprised fashion, he responds): Who? Admiral Barbarossa?! The two opponents shake hands. Admiral Barbarossa (with a sign of relief): At last, after years of fighting we meet today in peace. (A moment later, he addresses Admiral Andrea Doria): what is all this stubbornness for? (A moment of silence, then he continues): Three years now Turgut has been either on board rowing or when he is ill you throw him in a cell. I previously offered to ransom him with money, but you repeatedly rejected my offers. I proposed to exchange him with many Christian prisoners who are in the hands of the Algrian Arabs, but in vain. (He firmly says): Now, what is it that you want? (Silence)

Tu r g u t 38 Admiral Barbarossa (walks towards Andea Doria. He faces him and says): I am offering to protect your city against other enemies if this is what it takes. Admiral Andea Doria (directing Barbarossa to the Councils seating area) says: Please. Let us sit so we can discuss Turgut’s release. They both sit on the luxurious seats and talk softly to each other about Turgut … They then stand up and shake hands. Admiral Andea Doria (to the members of the Council of Notables): We have agreed to surrender Turgut in return for 3,500 gold Liras. The Council members look relieved. Admiral Barbarossa (to the Council): The exchange takes place at the port. The two opponents bid each other farewell. The Council members wave Barbarossa good-bye. Barbarossa exits with his guards. -Blackout-

Tu r g u t 39 Scene III Scene: Genoa Port Admiral Barbarossa and his guards stand at one side of the platform, the members of the Council of Notables stand at the other end. Turgut enters dressed in torn rags. He looks terribly exhausted as is clear from the way he walks. Turgut sees Barbarossa and rushes to hug him. The gurads of the Admiral rush to greet Turgut. All look rejoiced. Turgut examines the port slowly with his eyes. Turgut (to Barbarossa): What are all these ships for? Admiral Barbarossa: This is the Ottoman fleet. 210

Tu r g u t 40 ships. Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent commissioned me to help our ally, France, against the Spanish. On my way back, I decided to free you off their hands. (Barbarossa pats Turgut’s shoulder in happiness) Then he asks Turgut: How did you spend all this long period on board rowing? Turgut: Well, Lolita saw me as I rowed.. You know him, right? The one renowned for defending Malta against the Ottomans. Well, he said to me mockingly ‘Mr Turgut, take it easy. It is the war. That’s how it works. “I replied to him ‘Never mind. It is fate, and fortunes change”. Turgut turns to Barbarossa and says: You know what this means? Lolita himself was once sentenced to row on my ship. Admiral Barbarossa (noticing the arrival of his soldiers) says: Here is the money arriving. Barbarossa received the money bag, inspects it and then hands it over to a member of the Notables Council. The Council members leave.

Tu r g u t 41 Barbarossa (to those present): Turgut is more skilled than I am. I praise Allah for aiding me to rescue him. Brbarossa ( turns to Turgut and addresses him in joy and encouragement): My back-up ship, all its crew and cannons are all a gift from me to you. (Silence) There are also nineteen Commanders with their ships under your command. (Silence) (Then in a more serious tone): Now, my friend, it is time to drive the Spanish out of the North of Afriaca. -Blackout-

Tu r g u t 42 Mahdiyya Castle. Djerba Island. Narrow Water Passage.

43 Act Three The Djerba Trick

Tu r g u t 45 Scene I Setting: A huge curtain in the back with a map of the island of Djerba as part of the setting. It shows the water passage. To the right of the stage, a hill with the sign ‘Turgut’s Tent’. Two commanders enter talking until they reach Turgut’s tent. A third commander enters. One of the two commanders addresses the third one: Commander (1): Where are the rest of the Commanders? Commander (3): They are not needed. The Adniral listens to us more than he does them. Commander (1): We are in a serious predicament.

Tu r g u t 46 There does not seem to be any way out. Commander (2): We are surrounded! Commander (3): Our fleet is stuck between the shallow waters in the south of the strait and in the north where the entrance to the starit is Andrea Doria is blocking the way with his large fleet. To the right and left, there are Djerba and mainland. Who advised Turgut to enter the Qantara port? Turgut comes out of his tent. The first commander (to his companion): here is Admiral Turgut. Admiral Turgut: Come on Commardes. Come with me to the hill to check our enemy’s fleet. They walk a little, and then Turgut stops. He addresses them: Since 1544, after my release from captivity and that Barbarossa gave me the ships with its commanders and crew, there has not been a port or a ship in theMediterranean for the past six years that I did not attack. In 1550, I freed al-Mahdiyya, Sfax,

Tu r g u t 47 Sousse andMonastīr in Tunisia from the hands of the Spanish. Mahdiyya was my base except for its castle. However, when the French seized that year, they bombed the castle. This was when Barbarossa passed away and I was appointed to succeed him as Commander of the Ottoman fleet in the Mediterranean. My blows everywhere got harder and harder. The French together with the rest of Europe felt the danger and instructed Andrea Doria to sail with all his forces to capture me dead or alive. Look over there at old Andrea’s fleet of eight military ships. Turgut stands still for a moment looking pensive while his commanders stand round him. He does not look concerned or hopeful. One of the commanders ask him: Commander (2): This looks like a terrible misfortune. O, my God! There is no doubt those infidels will capture us all. Turgut (turns to him with his eyebrows crossed and responds): Not at all. The rows of the

Tu r g u t 48 Christian ships are far too many and my hands will never touch any of them ever again. It seems that Turgut has worked a way out of this military predicament at sea. He points at the water passage on the map at the back of the stage. Turgut: Look at this water passage. I am going to teach those idiots a lesson they would never forget. Look. (In a confident voice, Turgut addresses the commanders): Come on my sons. One of you should go to the town and bring as many locals as possible over here. Another orders the cutting and gathering of tree trunks and bring them to the shallow water passage. You, start heavy shelling of Andrea Doria’s ships. When they retreat a little away from our firing range, move the cannons to the front so that he is forced by our fires to move away from the entrance of the lake. Come on. Let’s get to work. The bombardment starts while the curtains slowly close.

Tu r g u t 49 Scene II Scene: at the front of the stage before the curtains, old Admiral Andrea Doria walks across the stage with his hands crossed behind his back. His head lowered and he looks pensive and concerned. One of Andrea Doria’s commanders approaches with a soldier. Commander (to his company): Here’s Admiral Andrea Doria. He approaches the Admiral and addresses him: Commander: Take it easy, Admiral Andrea Doria. Admiral Andrea Doria: I wrote to the Commander

Tu r g u t 50 of Sicily requesting infantry support, and informed him that I had captured the chief pirate, Turgut, who bombarded our houses for years. I wrote that I had seiged his ships and his men, but he has not sent any infantry or troops of any kind. Admiral Andrea Doria (looking at the sea, which is the direction of the audience. He looks far beyond) Admiral Andrea Doria: Watch for the arrival of the Sicilian force. Can you see anything? The Admiral and commander look the direction of the audience in the hope that they could see the arrival of the European reinforcement. Suddenly a man enters. He approaches from the side of the audience holding a cane with a coloured banner. Admiral Andrea Doria (pointing at the man): There is a ship coming. It is one of the ships of the Maltese Knights!

Tu r g u t 51 The man advances from among the audience to the front of the satge. Admiral Andrea Doria rushes to ask him: What’s the news? The Maltese Commander: Disturbing. I am sorry to be the bearer of bad news. Admiral Andrea Doria: Come on. Get on board. The Commander and the soldier help lift the Maltese Commander to the stage. Admiral Andrea Doria (to the Maltese Commander, puzzled): Bad news? Did the army you sent face any problems? That would be really terrible. Maltease Commander: No, it is worse than this. Admiral Andrea Doria: worse? What could be worse than this? Admiral Andrea Doria, troubled and disturbed, says: They must send the troops. The Ottoman wolf is already in the cage. Maltease Commander (hesitantly): I want to say, Sir, that Turgut is already in mid-sea with his entire fleet.

Tu r g u t 52 Admiral Andrea Doria looks in total shock. They are all in awe and the look of terrible disappointment shows on their faces. The commanders repeat: Turgutisinmid-sea?How? How is that possible? Maltease Commander (tryingtohidehisreluctance): He attacked us and we hardly escaped from him. Admiral Andrea Doria (in a state of frighted fury): Santa Maria! Santa Maria! Turgut is mid-sea! This is impossible. How did he manage this? Admiral Andrea Doria (pointing at the port in disbelief): He is over there; stuck with his ships. (Addressing the Maltease Commander with a tone of doubt): You must have seen the ships of one else. Maltease Commander: No. No. I know Turgut’s ships very well. I also saw his flag with my own eyes raised on the masts. Andrea Doria asks: How many ships does he have?

Tu r g u t 53 Maltease Commander: Ten Calite ships and a number of frigates. Andrea Doria: This is impossible! This is a trick from the Devil sitting there. Perhaps, he got some of his acquaintances to lead this manuvre to steer us away from here. Maybe .. Andrea Doria looks very concerned, but he tries to hide how he feels for a moment. He says: Let us enter the port.

Tu r g u t 54 Scene III The curtains open. The setting is similar to Scene I. At the back of the stage, there is the Djerba Island map, and to the right is a hill with the sign ‘Turgut’s Tent’. Admiral Andrea Doria and his company approach cautiously fearful of a fire attack. Admiral Andrea Doria rubs his eyes in disbelief. He tries to see the ships anchored at the port. Suddenly, he sees ‘Turgut’s Tent’ at the hill. It looks as if it is there to mock the coming invaders. In the meantime, a man holding a white flag enters. He approaches him saying: The man: I am the Sheikh of Djerba, and we are ready to accept all you propose.

Tu r g u t 55 Admiral Andrea Doria: Where is Turgut? Where is he? The Sheikh of Djerba points at the distant horizon and says: He sailed away with all his force. Admiral Andrea Doria: Impossible! How did it happen? Sheikh of Djerba: He crossed over the island, through the shallow water passage. Admiral Andrea Doria: This is not possible. How could he do so with all those huge ships? How? How? Sheikh of Djerba: He got them pulled on tree trunks to the open sea. AMessenger (rushes in): Andrea .. Andrea! A disaster! A disaster! Admiral Andrea Doria: What happened? Messenger: When you corresponded with the Commander of Sicily that you had Turgut, all the princes, commanders and nobles there got on one of the ships of the Sicilian commander and headed to receive their staunch enemy and gloat

Tu r g u t 56 over his capture in response to your plea. On their way to Djerba, Turgut took them by surprise and captured their ship with everyone on it. Admiral Andrea Doria (holding his head in shock and disbelief), struggles as he walks on the stage. He stumbles and drags his feet. He is unable to walk steadily. Admiral Andrea Doria: Turgut is the Devil. He is the Devil Incarnate! He is the Devil! -Blackout-

Tu r g u t 57 Jean de la Valette

59 Act Four The Battle of Djerba

Tu r g u t 61 Scene I The Holy League. Setting: Meeting of the Leadership of the Holy League in Malta. A hall with seven seats arranged in a crescent form. In the middle, the Head sits then the rest of the members. To one side the Hajib sits on another chair. The Hajib (reading from a piece of paper): First meeting of the Holy League in Malta, January 1560. Present in the League are: Spain represented by Prince Don Juan de la Cerda, Ruler of Medinaceli, the Commander General of this mission. Prince Don Juan stands up to greet the attendees and then sits down.

Tu r g u t 62 The Hajib: Admiral Giannandrea Doria of Genoa, son of the renowned Commander Giannettino Doria, being Commander of the naval forces. A young man in his twenties stands up to greet the attendees, then he sits down. The Hajib: Representative of Malta. A man stands up to greet the attendees then he sits down. The Hajib: The Commander of the forces of Sicily. A man stands up to greet the attendees then he sits down. The Hajib: There are no representatives for Venice or France. However, their forces are with us in secret. (A silent moment) The Hajib: The Grand Master of the Order of Malta, Jean de la Valette, is here to honour, bless and participate in the campaign. He used to be the Governor of Tripoli before the Turks seized it. A man dressed like a priest stands up.

Tu r g u t 63 The Hajib: Now, I present the General Commander of this mission, Prince Don Juan de la Cerda. Prince Don Juan de la Cerda stands up and reads from a paper. Prince Don Juan de la Cerda: Tripoli was in the hands of the Christian Jerusalem Knights. In mid-August 1551, Sinan Pasha retrieved it and drove out the Jerusalem Knights from there. Since then, The Jerusalem Knights have been urging King Philip II of Spain to conquer it. King Philip has eventually agreed to do so. He has instructed that a Holy League consisting of sea and lamd forces be formed. He has appointed me Commander General of all the forces to occupy Tripoli. Jean de la Valette (blessing them): May the Lord bless you all.

Tu r g u t 64 Skull Tower on the Island of Djerba

Tu r g u t 65 Scene II Disembarkation on the Island of Djerba. Scene: the Island of Djerba In the back of the stage is the Djerba map (of Act Three) The Commanders are sitting talking about what they went through since they left Malta. Admiral Giannandrea Doria: Bad luck has accompanied his campaign from the start. We were delayed by ten weeks, during which 1500 soldiers died of disease.

Tu r g u t 66 Commander General Don Juan de la Cerda: My mission was to seize Tripoli and withdraw after disemabarkation. But, if we had stayed we would have been able to counter the fortifications made by Tugurt round Tripoli. Admiral Giannandrea Doria: Even there, bad luck did not leave us. A large number of our ships ran aground at the Island and got stuck in the sand. All my attempts failed. Don Juan de la Cerda (TurningtoDonÁlvaro):Have you finished the constrction of the Castle of Djerba? Don Álvaro (hesitatingly): Almost, almost. Don Juan de la Cerda: Are you scared? Why would you be? What are you scared of? The locals of this peaceful Island? Initially, there was some resistance from the peasants and farmers. But now, as they see the mobilized troops,

Tu r g u t 67 they must listen to reason. They will not do anything. Don Álvaro: I heard the Ottoman fleet is nearby. One of the Commanders (enters in fear and panic. When he hears what Don Álvaro says he answers disapprovingly): You said nearby?! Look, look. You all look. They are here already. It is the Ottoman fleet. Sounds of firing and shelling fill the place. Chaos all over. The Island is disturbed and the Holy League is in a terrible state of panic and fright. A soldier (enters shouting): Look! Doria is leaving with the Southerners. He’s got them on board of his ship and is running away! Another soldier (enters and shouts in panic): Look! The Spanish Commander Don Juan is running away with his troops on board of his ships! A third soldier (shouts in terror): The Ottomans are disembarking on the island! O, my God! O, my God!

Tu r g u t 68 Major chaos spreads among the remaining forces of the Holy League. The sounds of the cannons continue to be heard as the stage dradually blackouts.

Tu r g u t 69 Scene III The Skull Tower Scene: The Islan of Djerba under the control of the Ottoman fleet Turgut to (Piala Pasha): We seized 56 ships. Commander Piala Pasha: How many are the casulaties? Turgut: 18,000. All beheaded. Commander Piala Pasha: Why? Turgut: Because I intend to built a Skull Tower with them. Commander Piala Pasha laughs.

Tu r g u t 70 The heads of the killed soldiers are brought to the stage to raise a skull tower. Ottoman soldiers crowd the stage. -Gradual blackout-

Tu r g u t 71 Scene IV The curtains open with gradual lighting. In the background a funeral procession crosses from one side to the other. The attendees repeat: La illah illaAllah,Muhammad Rasul-ullah. There is no god, but Allah, and Muhamad is the Messenger of Allah. The stage is filled with Ottoman commanders and men. The voice of a commentator is heard. The Commentator: On the 17th of June, the year 1565 CE, Turgut fell martyr during the siege of Malta. He is to be buried in Tripoli.

Tu r g u t 72 Voice reiterate: La illah illa Allah, Muhammad Rasul-ullah. There is no god, but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. -Gradual blackoutCurtains close End.

Tu r g u t 73 References Arabic and Turkish: 1. Abu al-Diyaf, Ahmad. 1963. Ithaf ahl al-Zaman bi-akhbar Muluk Tunis wa Ahd al-Aman. Tahqiq: Committee of the State Department for Cultural Affairs. Tunisia: State Department for Cultural Affairs. 2. Kamalzadeh. Turgut Reis, a Novel. Ankara: National Library. 3. Ottoman History Society Journal. 1911. Group C. Year 1. Vs. 1-6. 4. Piri Reis. 2002. Kitāb-ı Baḥrīye, or “Book of the Sea”. Republic of Turkey, Prime Ministry, Undersecretaryship of Navigation, Ankara. 5. Records regarding the activities of Turgut Reis from the Ottoman archives. Denizler Kahramani, Turgut Reis Gamlica.

Tu r g u t 74 6. Seyfi, Ali Riza. Turgut Reis. 1910. Istanbul. 7. Shalabi, Katib. 1973. Tuhfat al-Kibar fi Asfar alHihar. Istanbul. 8. Uzunçarşılı, Ismail Hakki. 1995. Ottoman History. V. II. Ankara: Turkish History Foundation. English and French: 1. Bradford, Erble. 1968. The Great Seige. 4th Edition. London: Hodder and Stoughton. 2. Braudel, Fernand. 1966. La Méditerranéenne et le Monde Méditerranéenne l’epoque de Philippe II. 2 tomes, seconde edition revue et augmentée. Paris: librairie Armand Colin. 3. Grazini, Antoine-Marie. A Lecture titled ‘Turgut, the Pirate’. Delivered in Girolata on 19 July 2005. 4. Monchicourt, Charles. 1913. L’expedition espagnole de 1560 contre l’île de Djerba. Paris: E. Leroux. 5. Setton, Kenneth M. 1984. The papcy and the Levant (1204-1517). V.4. The Sixteenth Century. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

Tu r g u t 75 Images Cover image: Turgut 1. Island of Djerba 14 2. Giannettino Doria 19 3. Hayereddin Barbarossa 28 4. Andrea Doria 35 5. Mahdiyya Castle. Djerba Island. Narrow Water Passage. 42 6. Jean de la Valette 57 7. Skull Tower on the Island of Djerba 64